CYRUS II THE GREAT
(reigned 559–530 B.C.)
   Kingof Persia, son and successor of Cambyses I. He was the founder of the Achaemenid empire. Sources for his reign are Herodotus and Ctesias, as well as contemporary Babylonian records, especially the Babylonian Chronicles and his own inscriptions, such as the Cyrus Cylinder.
   Cyrus began his career by defeating the Median king, Astyages. Having thus gained control over most of Iran, he set out to extend his dominions farther west. He attacked the Lydian capital Sardis, and within five years he had incorporated most of Anatolia into his empire. He then set out to conquer Babylonia. In 539 B.C., Cyrus crossed the Diyala River and took the city of Opis on the Tigris, after he had vanquished the defending Babylonian troops. Soon afterward, Sippar surrendered and Babylon was taken by his commander, Gibryas, on 12 October. Nabonidus, the king of Babylonia, was taken prisoner and deported to Persia (see DEPORTATIONS). Cyrus entered Babylon on 29 October. He declared his son Cambyses II to be “King of Babylon,” while he himself took the traditional Mesopotamian title “King of the Lands.”
   According to the Old Testament Book of Ezra, Cyrus issued the decree that allowed the deported Jews to return to Palestine and rebuild the temple in Jerusalem. Cyrus made efforts to extend his realm farther east, and it is likely that he controlled most of Afghanistan and South-central Asia. Within 30 years, he had turned a small kingdom into a vast empire. He died, probably on the battlefield, in 530 B.C., while fighting against a Central Asian tribe. His body was taken to Pasargadae, his new royal foundation, and buried in a stone-built tomb. A funerary cult continued there until the end of the Achaemenid empire.

Historical Dictionary of Mesopotamia. . 2012.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Cyrus the Great — King of Āryāvarta[1][2], King of Persia, King of Anshan, King of Media, King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, King of the four corners of the World[ …   Wikipedia

  • Cyrus II — (vers 559 av. J. C. à 529 av. J. C.), dit Cyrus le Grand, est le fondateur de l’Empire perse, successeur de l’Empire mède. Il appartient à la dynastie des Achéménides. Sommaire 1 Légendes de naissance 2 La constitution de l’Empire perse …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Cyrus the Great in the Bible — The Cylinder confirms that Cyrus allowed captives in Babylon to return to their native lands, earning him an honored place in Judaism. Cyrus the Great figures in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) as the patron and deliverer of the Jews. He is… …   Wikipedia

  • Cyrus II — known as Cyrus the Great born с 585, Media or Persis died с 529, Asia Conqueror who founded the Achaemenian Empire (see Achaemenian dynasty). The grandson of Cyrus I (fl. late 7th century BC), he came to power by overthrowing his maternal… …   Universalium

  • Cyrus the Great in the Quran — Main article: Dhul Qarnayn Dhul Qarnayn is thought to refer to Cyrus by some recent Qur anic commentators …   Wikipedia

  • Cyrus the Great in the Qur'an — Dhul Qarnayn (Arabic for the two horned ) is mentioned in the Qur an. The story of Dhul Qarnayn appears in sixteen verses of the Qur an, specifically the 16 verses (Al Kahf). There is extensive ongoing debate on who exactly was the historical… …   Wikipedia

  • Cyrus II — noun king of Persia and founder of the Persian Empire (circa 600 529 BC) • Syn: ↑Cyrus the Elder, ↑Cyrus the Great • Instance Hypernyms: ↑king, ↑male monarch, ↑Rex …   Useful english dictionary

  • Cyrus the Great — noun king of Persia and founder of the Persian Empire (circa 600 529 BC) • Syn: ↑Cyrus II, ↑Cyrus the Elder • Instance Hypernyms: ↑king, ↑male monarch, ↑Rex …   Useful english dictionary

  • Cyrus II — biographical name circa 585 circa 529 B.C. the Great or the Elder king of Persia (circa 550 529) …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Cyrus II — (reigned 559 530 b.c.)    The first and arguably greatest king of the Persian Empire. Born in the Persian homeland of Fars, located north of the Persian Gulf, Cyrus traced his ancestry back to Achaemenes, a legendary character who had supposedly… …   Ancient Mesopotamia dictioary

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”