UR
(modern TELLMUQAYYAR)
   Important Mesopotamian city in southern Babylonia. The site was first excavated by H. R. Hall in 1918–1919, and later by a joint expedition of the British Museum and the University Museum of Pennsylvania under Leonard Woolley (1922–1934). It was situated on the Euphrates and had access to the Persian Gulf. Ur has a long and continuous history of occupation that began in the Ubaidperiod(c. 4500 B.C.) and ended around 450 B.C. It was the seat of the moon god Nanna(r), or Sin. The earliest levels were not substantially excavated and are mainly known from pottery and tools. During the Uruk period, a monumental building with cone mosaic decoration was erected.
   Ur began to develop into a major city in the third millennium B.C., during the Early Dynastic period. The Sumerian King Listrecords two dynasties at Ur. The First Dynasty was more or less contemporary with the period of the so-called Royal Graves of Ur, excavated by Woolley. The elaborate burial gifts demonstrate the considerable wealth of the elite. Of the four kings mentioned by the King List, only Mesannepadda is known from brief inscriptions on objects found in the graves. The question of whether the other personages buried in the graves, both male and female, were sacrificial victims or secondary interments is still debated. According to the Sumerian King List, the Second Dynasty of Ur had four kings, whose names are not preserved.
   During the Akkad period, Ur formed part of the empire founded by Sargon of Akkad, whose daughter, Enheduanna, served the moon god as the highest-ranking priestess. Ur was one of the cities that rebelled against Naram-Sin.
   The apogee of Ur’s importance was the Third Dynasty of Ur (c. 2100–2000), when the city became the capital of a large and prosperous empire. Most of the extant architectural structures and cuneiformtablets found at Ur date from this period. Ur-Nammu, the founder of the dynasty, built a large ziggurat that has been partially restored. His successors continued his building works in the sacred precinct that included the temples of Nanna and Ningal, as well as the residence of the entu priestesses. Although the city was destroyed by the Elamites in 2007, the temples plundered and torched, and the inhabitants massacred, it was soon reinhabited.
   In the Old Babylonian period, Ur was an important center of learning, and from this time a number of residential buildings have been excavated that give a good impression of the densely built urban fabric of a Mesopotamian town. The “heirs” of Ur, the kings of Isin and Larsa, were keen to show their respect to the gods of Ur by repairing the devastated temples. Despite the ecological problems experienced by the south toward the mid-second millennium, Ur continued to function, and the Kassite kings were also eager to contribute to the moon god’s temples. So did subsequent rulers: NebuchadrezzarIrebuilt the giparuand revitalized the office of the entu priestess.
   Assyrian kings and governors also invested in the sacred precinct at Ur, and finally Nabonidus, with his well-publicized devotion to Sin, ordered the reconstruction of the ziggurat. The city began to decline during the Achaemenid period, and records cease after the end of the fourth century B.C. See also KURIGALZU I.

Historical Dictionary of Mesopotamia. . 2012.

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  • UR — UR, one of the largest towns in Sumer and later in Babylonia. Today it is a wide expanse of ruins in which stands a high tell, the ruins of the Ziggurat of Ur, known as al Muqayyar. Ur developed on the bank of a large canal, which carried water… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • UR — Ville du sud de la Mésopotamie. L’époque préhistorique et protohistorique d’Ur remonte au UR Ve millénaire. On la divise en trois périodes: celle d’El Obeid, à laquelle succèdent celles d’Uruk et de Jemdet Nasr. À l’époque sumérienne archaïque,… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • ur — ur·heen; ur·man; ur·na·tel·la; ur·ning; ur·ning·ism; ur·si·dae; ur·si·form; ur·si·gram; ur·sine; ur·sin·ia; ur·soid; ur·solic; ur·spra·che; ur·su·la; ur·sus; ur·ti·ca; ur·ti·ca·ce·ae; ur·ti·ca·les; ur·ti·cant; ur·ti·car·ia; ur·ti·cate;… …   English syllables

  • ur — ur̃ interj. ppr. kartojant 1. Šmn dundėjimui, barškėjimui, ūžimui, trypimui nusakyti: Užgruvo šulnis, ur̃ ur̃, šalėp kitą kasė, tą užkišę DūnŽ. Ur̃ ur̃ ur̃ tep burzgia raplanas (lėktuvas) Gs. Ur̃ ur̃ in tę, ur̃ ur̃ atgal, ir apsivertė su… …   Dictionary of the Lithuanian Language

  • UR — or ur may refer to:In toponymy: *Ur, an ancient city in southern Mesopotamia **Royal Game of Ur, two game boards found in Royal Tombs of Ur and dating from the First Dynasty of Ur, before 2600 BC *Hayy Ur, a neighborhood of eastern Baghdad, Iraq… …   Wikipedia

  • Ur — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. {{{image}}}   Sigles d une seule lettre > Sigles de deux lettres   Sigles de trois lettres …   Wikipédia en Français

  • UR — steht für: Auerochse, ausgestorbenes Wildrind Auerochse (Wappentier) in der Heraldik Ur (Stadt), eine der ältesten sumerischen Städte in Südmesopotamien früherer deutscher Name des Flusses Our Ur (Alamanne), alamannischer Gaukönig des 4.… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ur — steht für: Auerochse, ausgestorbenes Wildrind Auerochse (Wappentier) in der Heraldik Ur (Stadt), eine der ältesten sumerischen Städte in Südmesopotamien Ur (Alamanne), alamannischer Gaukönig des 4. Jahrhunderts Ur (Kontinent), hypothetischer… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ur- — steht für: Auerochse, ausgestorbenes Wildrind Auerochse (Wappentier) in der Heraldik Ur (Stadt), eine der ältesten sumerischen Städte in Südmesopotamien Ur (Alamanne), alamannischer Gaukönig des 4. Jahrhunderts Ur (Kontinent), hypothetischer… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ur — Ur, ein sehr altes Wort, nicht allein in der Deutschen, sondern fast in allen Sprachen, welches indessen im Deutschen nur noch in der Zusammensetzung mit einigen Nennwörtern, und einigen wenigen davon abstammenden Zeitwörtern üblich ist. Es… …   Grammatisch-kritisches Wörterbuch der Hochdeutschen Mundart

  • ur- — [u:ɐ̯] <adjektivisches Präfix>: 1. a) (emotional verstärkend) kennzeichnet den hohen Grad des im Basiswort Genannten; sehr, ganz, äußerst: uralt; ureigen; urgemütlich; urgesund; urkomisch; urplötzlich. Syn.: erz (emotional verstärkend,… …   Universal-Lexikon

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