BARLEY
(latin HORDEUM SPP)
   This is one of the cereal plants, along with wheat and emmer, native to the Fertile Crescent. These plants were domesticated in the Neolithic periodand could be grown with dry farming methods. Since barley is more salt tolerant than wheat, it became the most important staple grain in the irrigationbased Mesopotamian agriculture. It was sown at the onset of winter in carefully prepared plowed fields in straight rows and harvested in spring, between April and May. ASumeriantext known as the Farmers Almanac gives detailed instructions of the main stages involved in cultivation, from the calculation of how much seed to use per surface available to the manpower and animal traction that was required. Barley was consumed as bread and gruel and in the form of beer. Since it was cultivated on a large scale on behalf of the “great organizations,” the templesand palaces, the surplus was administered centrally and distributed in the form of rations. Barley was so integral to the Mesopotamian economythat it served as a commodity and means of payment.

Historical Dictionary of Mesopotamia. . 2012.

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  • BARLEY — (Heb. שְׂעוֹרָה; se orah), one of the seven species (see food ) with which Ereẓ Israel was blessed (Deut. 8:8). In biblical times barley bread was a staple food and was extensively cultivated, especially as it grows even in poor soil and in areas …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Barley — Bar ley, n. [OE. barli, barlich, AS. b[ae]rlic; bere barley + l[=i]c (which is prob. the same as E. like, adj., or perh. a form of AS. le[=a]c leek). AS. bere is akin to Icel, barr barley, Goth. barizeins made of barley, L. far spelt; cf. W.… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Barley — steht für: einen Ort in England, siehe Barley (Hertfordshire) eine US amerikanische Automobilmarke 1922 1924, siehe Barley (Auto) Barley ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Brian Barley (1942–1971), kanadischer Jazzmusiker (Klarinette,… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • barley — O.E. bærlic, originally an adjective, of barley, from bere barley (from P.Gmc. *bariz, *baraz) + lic body, like. First element is related to O.N. barr barley, and cognate with L. far (gen. farris) coarse grain, meal; probably from PIE *bhars… …   Etymology dictionary

  • barley — [bär′lē] n. [ME barli < OE bærlic, of barley < bere, barley + lic ( LY1) < IE base * bhares > FARINA, ON barr, grain] 1. a cereal grass (Hordeum vulgare and related species) with dense, bearded spikes of flowers, each made up of three …   English World dictionary

  • barley — ► NOUN ▪ a hardy cereal with coarse bristles extending from the ears, used chiefly in brewing and animal feed. ORIGIN Old English …   English terms dictionary

  • Barley — For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). Barley Barley field …   Wikipedia

  • barley — barley1 /bahr lee/, n. 1. a widely distributed cereal plant belonging to the genus Hordeum, of the grass family, having awned flowers that grow in tightly bunched spikes, with three small additional spikes at each node. 2. the grain of this plant …   Universalium

  • Barley — This interesting surname of English origin is a locational name from any of the various places called Barley in Lancashire and West Yorkshire deriving from the Old English pre 7th Century bar meaning wild boar or boer meaning barley , plus leah… …   Surnames reference

  • barley — noun ADJECTIVE ▪ malted, malting ▪ roasted ▪ pearl ▪ wild ▪ feed ▪ …   Collocations dictionary

  • barley — n. 1 any of various hardy awned cereals of the genus Hordeum widely used as food and in malt liquors and spirits such as whisky. 2 the grain produced from this (cf. pearl barley). Phrases and idioms: barley sugar an amber coloured sweet made of… …   Useful english dictionary

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