BEER
   The earliest evidence for the use of beer comes from GodinTepe in central Iran, where remains of beer were found in a fragmentary jar that dates back to the late fourth millennium B.C. In the ancient Near East, beer was part of the basic nutrition and was apparently consumed at all times in large quantities and as part of the daily rations to laborers. Since only fresh water was used in its preparation, it was a healthier drink than the often polluted water from the canals and wells, as well as being enriched with protein and vitamins and easily digestible. Its percentage of alcohol is not known. Several myths and narratives describe drunkenness among gods and mortals. One creation myth derives the various defects suffered by people, such as blindness and barrenness, as the result of a competition between two inebriated deities (“Enki and Ninhursanga”). Beer was produced mainly from barley. From the pounded grain, cakes were molded and baked for a short time. These were pounded again, mixed with water, and brought to fermentation. Then the pulp was filtered and the beer stored in large jars. Mesopotamian beer could be kept only for a short time and had to be consumed fresh. The cuneiform texts mention different kinds of beer, such as “strong beer,” “fine beer,” and “dark beer.” Other sorts were produced from emmer or sesame, as well as dates in the Neo-Babylonian period and later.
   Beer was not only part of the rations for workers but was also offered daily to the gods. In the temple cult, it was further used at banquets during the major festivals. See also FOOD.

Historical Dictionary of Mesopotamia. . 2012.

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  • béer — [ bee ] v. intr. <conjug. : 1> • baer 1121; lat. pop. °batare « bâiller » 1 ♦ Rare Être grand ouvert. Qui bée. ⇒ béant. « À ses pieds béait la valise bigarrée d étiquettes multicolores » (Martin du Gard). 2 ♦ Littér. Avoir la bouche ouverte …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Beer — steht für: Beer (Familienname), der Familienname Beer Beer (Architektenfamilie), eine Familie von Barockbaumeistern aus dem Bregenzer Wald Beer (Devon), einen Ort in England Beer (Somerset), eine Ortschaft in der Gemeinde Aller in Somerset in… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • beer — W3S2 [bıə US bır] n [: Old English; Origin: beor] 1.) [U] an alcoholic drink made from ↑malt and ↑hops ▪ a pint of beer ▪ We sell traditional draught beer (=beer served from a large container, not a bottle) . 2.) a glass, bottle, or can of beer …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • Beer — Beer, n. [OE. beor, ber, AS. be[ o]r; akin to Fries. biar, Icel. bj?rr, OHG. bior, D. & G. bier, and possibly E. brew. [root]93, See {Brew}.] 1. A fermented liquor made from any malted grain, but commonly from barley malt, with hops or some other …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Beer —    Beer has been brewed in Brussels and the surrounding communes since the beginning of the 13th century, ever since the requisite grains barley and wheat and hops have been grown here. In 1295, John II, duke of Brabant, authorized the city… …   Historical Dictionary of Brussels

  • beer — O.E. beor strong drink, beer, mead, a word of much disputed and ambiguous origin, cognate with O.Fris. biar, M.Du., Du. bier, O.H.G. bior, Ger. Bier. Probably a 6c. West Germanic monastic borrowing of V.L. biber a drink, beverage (from L.… …   Etymology dictionary

  • beer — [ bır ] noun *** uncount a yellow or brown alcoholic drink made from MALT (=grain that has been left in water and then dried) and HOPS (=a type of plant). You make or brew beer: I don t drink beer, only wine. a barrel of beer a. count a glass or… …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English

  • beer — BEER. v. n. Tenir la bouche ouverte en regardant long temps quelque chose. Il n est en usage qu en cette phrase prov. & figurée. Beer aux corneilles, pour dire, S amuser à regarder en l air niaisement. Beer, signifie aussi figur. Desirer quelque… …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

  • beer — ► NOUN ▪ an alcoholic drink made from yeast fermented malt flavoured with hops. ● beer and skittles Cf. ↑beer and skittles ORIGIN from Latin biber a drink , from bibere to drink …   English terms dictionary

  • beer — [bir] n. [ME & OE beor, akin to Ger bier; only in WGmc; a monastic (6th c.) borrowing < VL biber, beverage (< L bibere,IMBIBE): orig. used for the drink made with hops, as distinct from the older drink, ale, then made without] 1. an… …   English World dictionary

  • BEER — (Heb. בְּאֵר; a well ), the name of several biblical localities. (1) One of the stations where the Israelites stopped during the Exodus, north of the Brook of Zered in Transjordan (Num. 21:16–18). It is possibly identical with Beer Elim (Isa.… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

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