- An archaeological period (literally “copper-stone” age) that refers to increased use of metallurgy, especially of copper, toward the end of the Neolithic period. In Mesopotamia, the Chalcolithic period lasted approximately from the sixth to the fifth millennia B.C. Pilot sites are Tepe Gawra and Tell Arpachiya in the north, and Eridu and Tell Awayli in the south. For southern sites, the term Ubaid period is also used, and for the north, Halaf period. In this phase, all the achievements of the preceding period were further developed; horticulture and agriculture spread, and more and more people adopted a sedentary lifestyle. The archaeological evidence points to increased settlement size, increased specialization and professionalization, and higher labor inputs. All ecological niches and their wild resources (fish, water fowl, game, wild legumes) were exploited, and new cultigens were planted in fields and gardens, making use of hydro-technological inventions such as field irrigation.The Chalcolithic period also saw the introduction of fundamentally new technologies. Particularly striking is the hand-painted, sometimes glazed potteryshowing an unparalleled degree of perfection. Pottery sets, found in many graves, were probably used in rituals and banquets where status could be displayed (see CRAFTS; FUNERARY AND BURIAL PRACTICES). Metallurgy was less developed in Mesopotamia than in neighboring countries such as Iran. Gold was introduced, and arsenic bronze appeared in the upper Euphrates region in the Ubaid period. There is some evidence from Tell Awayli of a weaving loom (see TEXTILES).Stone was also worked with more sophistication; it was now possible to work stones with a hardness of 4 to 7 on the Moh’s hardness scale. The presence of exotic stones, such as lapis-lazuli from Badakhshan or turquoise from Central Asia, points to an interlinking supply system. Exchange of goods seems to have been an important factor of Chalcolithic socioeconomics, as was the practice of seals and sealing documents. Some scholars propose that Chalcolithic communities were on the way to forming states (“incipient statehood”), given the whole-scale application of traditional inventions, efforts at maximizing energy output, and increasing full-time sedentarization.
Historical Dictionary of Mesopotamia. EdwART. 2012.
Look at other dictionaries:
Chalcolithic — Reconstruction of a Copper Age walled city, Los Millares, Spain. Chalcolithic Eneolithic, Aeneolithic Copper Age This box … Wikipedia
Chalcolithic — /kal keuh lith ik/, adj. of, pertaining to, or characteristic of the Copper Age; Aeneolithic. [1900 05; CHALCO + LITHIC] * * * … Universalium
chalcolithic — adjective aeneolithic … Wiktionary
Chalcolithic — [ˌkalkə(ʊ) lɪθɪk] adjective Archaeology relating to or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennia BC, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. Origin early 20th cent.: from Gk khalkos copper + lithos stone + ic … English new terms dictionary
chalcolithic — chal·co·lith·ic … English syllables
chalcolithic — adj. Archaeol. of a prehistoric period in which both stone and bronze implements were used. Etymology: Gk khalkos copper + lithos stone … Useful english dictionary
Chalcolithic Temple of Ein Gedi — Chalcolithic Temple of Ein Gedi … Wikipedia
Chalcolithic Europe — The Neolithic This box: view · talk · edit ↑ Mesolithic … Wikipedia
Chalcolithic Age — beginning of the Bronze Age (q.v.). * * * … Universalium
List of Chalcolithic cultures in China — This is a list of Chalcolithic cultures in China:*Qijia culture 齐家文化 (in Gansu and Qinghai)Literature Zhongguo da baike quanshu: Kaoguxue [Encyclopedia Sinica, Vol.: Archaeology] , Beijing: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe, 1986 See also *List … Wikipedia