(626–539 B.C.)
   Babylonian dynasty founded by the Chaldeanleader Nabopolassar,who brought the period of Assyrian domination over Babylonia to an end. He made an alliance with the Medesand successfully launched attacks against the powerful Assyrian cities, destroying Nineveh in 612. His successor, Nebuchadrezzar II, fought to win the Syrian and Anatolian provinces for Babylonia and built the city of Babylon into the most splendid capital of the time.
   There were violent palace intrigues after Nebuchadrezzar’s death, although the situation in Babylonia and the conquered territories remained relatively stable. The last Chaldean king was Nabonidus, who spent 10 years in an oasis town in northern Arabia and after his return had to submit to the Persian emperor Cyrus II, who brought Mesopotamian independence to an end.

Historical Dictionary of Mesopotamia. . 2012.

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