CYRUS II THE GREAT

(reigned 559–530 B.C.)
   Kingof Persia, son and successor of Cambyses I. He was the founder of the Achaemenid empire. Sources for his reign are Herodotus and Ctesias, as well as contemporary Babylonian records, especially the Babylonian Chronicles and his own inscriptions, such as the Cyrus Cylinder.
   Cyrus began his career by defeating the Median king, Astyages. Having thus gained control over most of Iran, he set out to extend his dominions farther west. He attacked the Lydian capital Sardis, and within five years he had incorporated most of Anatolia into his empire. He then set out to conquer Babylonia. In 539 B.C., Cyrus crossed the Diyala River and took the city of Opis on the Tigris, after he had vanquished the defending Babylonian troops. Soon afterward, Sippar surrendered and Babylon was taken by his commander, Gibryas, on 12 October. Nabonidus, the king of Babylonia, was taken prisoner and deported to Persia (see DEPORTATIONS). Cyrus entered Babylon on 29 October. He declared his son Cambyses II to be “King of Babylon,” while he himself took the traditional Mesopotamian title “King of the Lands.”
   According to the Old Testament Book of Ezra, Cyrus issued the decree that allowed the deported Jews to return to Palestine and rebuild the temple in Jerusalem. Cyrus made efforts to extend his realm farther east, and it is likely that he controlled most of Afghanistan and South-central Asia. Within 30 years, he had turned a small kingdom into a vast empire. He died, probably on the battlefield, in 530 B.C., while fighting against a Central Asian tribe. His body was taken to Pasargadae, his new royal foundation, and buried in a stone-built tomb. A funerary cult continued there until the end of the Achaemenid empire.

Historical Dictionary of Mesopotamia. . 2012.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Cyrus the Great — King of Āryāvarta[1][2], King of Persia, King of Anshan, King of Media, King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, King of the four corners of the World[ …   Wikipedia

  • Cyrus the Great in the Bible — The Cylinder confirms that Cyrus allowed captives in Babylon to return to their native lands, earning him an honored place in Judaism. Cyrus the Great figures in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) as the patron and deliverer of the Jews. He is… …   Wikipedia

  • Cyrus the Great Day — October 29th (7th of Aban) which according to the historians is the day that Cyrus the Great entered Babylon, has been designated as the international day of Cyrus The Great[1] king of Persia, who declared the first charter of human rights in th …   Wikipedia

  • Cyrus the Great in the Quran — Main article: Dhul Qarnayn Dhul Qarnayn is thought to refer to Cyrus by some recent Qur anic commentators …   Wikipedia

  • Cyrus the Great in the Qur'an — Dhul Qarnayn (Arabic for the two horned ) is mentioned in the Qur an. The story of Dhul Qarnayn appears in sixteen verses of the Qur an, specifically the 16 verses (Al Kahf). There is extensive ongoing debate on who exactly was the historical… …   Wikipedia

  • Cyrus the Great — noun king of Persia and founder of the Persian Empire (circa 600 529 BC) • Syn: ↑Cyrus II, ↑Cyrus the Elder • Instance Hypernyms: ↑king, ↑male monarch, ↑Rex …   Useful english dictionary

  • Darius the Great — Darius I Khshayathiya Khshayathiyanam , King of Kings Outline tracing of the figure representing Darius in the Behistun Inscription Reign Sep 522 BCE to …   Wikipedia

  • List of people known as The Great — This is a list of people whose names in English are commonly appended with the phrase the Great , or who were called that or an equivalent phrase in their own language. Other languages have their own suffixes such as e Bozorg and e azam in… …   Wikipedia

  • Alexander the Great in the Qur'an — Alexander in the Qur an is a theory that holds that the character of Dhul Qarnayn, mentioned in the Qur an, is in fact Alexander the Great. The name Alexander itself is never mentioned in the Qur an. Dhul Qarnayn (in Arabic ذو القرنين) is a… …   Wikipedia

  • Alexander the Great — This article is about the ancient king of Macedon. For other uses, see Alexander the Great (disambiguation). Alexander the Great Basileus of Macedon …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.