FIRST DYNASTY OF BABYLON
- (C. 1894 – C. 1595 B.C.)A historical period in which the city of Babylon first became the political center of Mesopotamia. The dynasty was founded by Sumu-abum, an Amorite; hence, it is also sometimes referred to as the Amorite Dynasty. At the beginning, the rulers of Babylon controlled only a small territory around the city since there were several competing political configurations in Mesopotamia, such as Larsa, Isin, Eshnunna, and Assyria. It was the sixth king, Hammurabi (reigned 1792–1750 B.C.), who triumphed over all these rivals. Babylon became the capital of a powerful kingdom with roughly the same borders as that of the Third Dynasty of Ur. The administrationof the state was modeled on the one set up by Rim-Sinof Larsa. Literacy was widespread, and the king was kept informed about all manner of governmental details. It was a characteristic of Amorite kings to remain approachable to their subjects and to rule more in the manner of a traditional sheikh than an exalted king. They were also much concerned with the promulgation of laws and legal statutes and that justice was upheld in the land. The final legal instance was the king himself. The Babylonian state was less highly centralized than that of Ur during the Third Dynasty. It employed private middlemen rather than bureaucrats to ensure the collection of revenue. Some documents of the time also mention a special category of semifree citizen, the mushkenum, whose status was neither free nor that of a slave and who were possibly persons tied to the palace.The most important rulers of the First Babylonian Dynasty were Hammurabi and his successor, Samsu-iluna, who ruled for 37 years (1749–1712 B.C.). During the latter’s reign, the territorial integrity of the kingdom disintegrated; the south became independent under the leadership of the Sealand (c. 1742), and a new people from the east, the Kassites, settled in increasing number in the northern and northeastern regions of Babylonia. Economic problems, due to the deteriorating ecological situation in the south, loss of access to the sea, and tribal unrest, contributed to unstable conditions that affected some cities more than others. Royal edicts releasing public and private debts indicate that many people were affected by the inability to meet debt payments.The demise of the First Babylonian Dynasty resulted from a surprise raid by the Hittite king Mursili I who marched down the Euphrates and attacked Babylon. The date of this event is traditionally given as 1595 B.C., although more recently a revised date of 1499 has been proposed.
Historical Dictionary of Mesopotamia. EdwART. 2012.
Look at other dictionaries:
FIRST DYNASTY OF ISIN — (C. 2017 – C. 1794 B.C.) After the fall of the Third Dynasty of Ur, the center of power shifted farther north to the city of Isin,where the erstwhile Urgovernor Ishbi Errafounded a new dynasty to carry on the traditions of Mesopotamian… … Historical Dictionary of Mesopotamia
Babylon — Not to be confused with Babylonia. For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). Coordinates … Wikipedia
First Babylonian Dynasty — The chronology of the first dynasty of Babylonia is debated as there is a Babylonian King List A and a Babylonian King List B. In this chronology, the regnal years of List A are used due to their wide usage. The reigns in List B are longer, in… … Wikipedia
BABYLON — (Heb. Bavel, בָּבֶל, Gk. Βαβυλὼν), ancient city on the eastern bank of the Euphrates River in what is now Iraq. (In contemporary convention, Babylon is used for the city name and Babylonia for the country. In biblical Hebrew בבל is used for… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Babylon — /bab euh leuhn, lon /, n. 1. an ancient city of SW Asia, on the Euphrates River, famed for its magnificence and culture: capital of Babylonia and later of the Chaldean empire. 2. any rich and magnificent city believed to be a place of excessive… … Universalium
BABYLON — Ancient city on the river Euphrates, south of modern Baghdad. The name is the Greek version of the Babylonian Babili, which was rendered as “Gate of the Gods,” although the etymology is unclear. The river used to run through the city but… … Historical Dictionary of Mesopotamia
Babylon — The most famous city of ancient Mesopotamia and possibly the entire Near East, and the capital or main stronghold of a number of succeeding political states and empires. The term Babylon is the Greek version of Babili or Bab ilim, meaning Gate … Ancient Mesopotamia dictioary
Babylon 5 Wars — Infobox Game title = Babylon 5 Wars subtitle = image link = image caption = designer = Robert N. Glass, Bruce H. Graw illustrator = publisher = Agents of Gaming players = 2 or more ages = 10+ setup time = 5 10 minutes playing time = 1 to 4 hours… … Wikipedia
List of Kings of Babylon — The following is a list of the kings of Babylonia, a major city and empire in ancient lower Mesopotamia, compiled from the traditional Babylonian king lists and modern archaeological findings.The Babylonian king listThe Babylonian King List is… … Wikipedia
KASSITE DYNASTY — (C. 1595–1150 B.C.) According to the Babylonian King List, the Kassite Dynasty comes after the First Dynasty of Babylon and before the Second Dynasty of Isin. Thirty two kings are listed, but the first three (Gandash, Agum I, and Kashtiliash)… … Historical Dictionary of Mesopotamia