- While donkeys and other short-legged equids were present in the ancient Near East since the Paleolithic period, horses were introduced from the Central Asian steppes not before the late third millennium B.C. Their foreign origin is reflected in the Sumerian term ANSE.KUR.RA, which means “donkey of the mountains.” At the beginning, horses were primarily used to pull chariots; the reins were connected to a ring through the nose. With the influx of peoples from the east, who were more familiar with horses (e.g., the Kassites), technologies improved. Since the 16th century, true bits worn in the horse’s mouth and made of bronze were introduced, and this much improved the handling of the animals. They became an important part of the armed forces as cavalry and to pull chariots. While earlier mounted warriors had to ride in pairs, allowing one of them to use his bow while the other controlled both horses, improved reins and bridles could be secured, leaving the hands free. Saddles and stirrups were unknown, but horses could wear breastplates and various ornaments.In the beginning of the first millennium B.C., the Assyrians owed their rapid rise to power to their efficient cavalry units. The Assyrian uplands were suitable for horse breeding, and part of their conquests were motivated by the need to secure a reliable supply of horses and riders for their army.The chariotry initially represented a prestige unit; costly chariots constituted a noble royal gift. Only in the first millennium did lightweight chariots become an integral part of the military organization (see WARFARE).Cuneiform archives from the Kassite period, from Nuzi and Assyriansites, contained manuals on horse breeding, horse terminology (replete with foreign words), and training methods. One text from Ugarit concerns veterinary matters.
Historical Dictionary of Mesopotamia. EdwART. 2012.
Look at other dictionaries:
Horses — Студийный альбом Патти С … Википедия
Horses — Álbum de Patti Smith Publicación Noviembre de 1975 Grabación 1975 en Electric Lady Studios de Nueva York. Género(s) Rock protopunk … Wikipedia Español
Horses — Studioalbum von Patti Smith Veröffentlichung 1975 Label Arista Records Format … Deutsch Wikipedia
Horses — Horses are interesting creatures. Some are as smart as others are stupid, just like people. On average, a horse is about as smart as the average dog … The writer's dictionary of science fiction, fantasy, horror and mythology
HORSES — Wild horses disappeared from Italy at the end of the Pleistocene and reappeared in the third millennium BC. However, it is only in the Middle Bronze Age of northern Italy that the animal begins to reappear in large numbers. There is convincing … Historical Dictionary of the Etruscans
Horses — / Horse Beasts of burden and transport used by Elves and Men through the ages. Famous among horses were Rochallor, the warhorse of Fingolfin, and Felaróf, the steed of Eorl the Young. The breeding and riding of horses were arts developed… … J.R.R. Tolkien's Middle-earth glossary
horses — In folk tradition, horses were regarded as very vulnerable to supernatural attack; in particular, their night sweats and exhaustion were interpreted as due to hag riding by witches or fairies, from whom they must be protected by holed stones.… … A Dictionary of English folklore
horses — n. horse power, as in an engine. □ How many horses does this thing have? □ Isn’t 400 horses a lot for just one car? … Dictionary of American slang and colloquial expressions
Horses — Horse Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Horse est un mot anglais signifiant cheval Horse(s) peut faire référence à : Horses, un album de 1975 de la chanteuse de rock américaine Patti… … Wikipédia en Français
horses — arkliniai statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas taksono rangas šeima apibrėžtis Šeimoje 1 gentis. Kūno masė – 120 350 kg. atitikmenys: lot. Equidae angl. horses vok. Pferde rus. лошадиные pranc. équidés ryšiai: platesnis terminas – neporanagiai… … Žinduolių pavadinimų žodynas