(fl. 356–321 B.C.)
   Macedonian conqueror, son of Philip II of Macedon. He set out to challenge the supremacy of the Achaemenid Persians in Ionia and ended up with an empire that for the first time in history linked Europe with Western and Central Asia. He achieved this by a series of campaigns with a relatively small but highly disciplined force of fighters in which he provoked pitched battles with the Persian army, fielding many thousands of men. He won his first victory at the river Granicus (334), which gave him access to the Cilician Gates. He then confronted the massed forces led by the Persian king Darius III at Issos (333) and inflicted another defeat on the Persians. Darius escaped to Babylon while Alexander continued southward to Syria and Palestine, where most of the cities surrendered voluntarily. Alexander then invaded Egypt and was enthroned as pharaoh in 331. Darius had meanwhile assembled a vast army in Babylonia. Another battle was fought near Gaugamela, and Alexander triumphed again. He then marched to Babylon, where the satrap Mazeus surrendered. Darius had escaped to Media, and Alexander set out for Persepolis, the dynastic center of the Achaemenid empire, which he looted of its wealth before setting fire to the city.
   Darius was assassinated by his own people, and Alexander continued his conquest farther east across the Iranian highland and into Bactria, where he married the daughter of the vanquished king in 324. He pressed on into India, reached Pattala in 325, and, while part of his troops returned by sea, he marched back to Persia. The return of the fleet and the conquest of India were celebrated at Susa, and he took the eldest daughter of Darius in marriage. Alexander planned the conquest of Arabia and set out for Babylon, where preparations were made for a seaborne invasion. On 31 March 323, he caught a fever from which he was never to recover. He died on 10 June, not yet 33 years old. His untimely death sparked intense and prolonged rivalries for his succession and the division of the enormous territories he had conquered.

Historical Dictionary of Mesopotamia. . 2012.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Alexander the Great — This article is about the ancient king of Macedon. For other uses, see Alexander the Great (disambiguation). Alexander the Great Basileus of Macedon …   Wikipedia

  • Alexander the Great in the Qur'an — Alexander in the Qur an is a theory that holds that the character of Dhul Qarnayn, mentioned in the Qur an, is in fact Alexander the Great. The name Alexander itself is never mentioned in the Qur an. Dhul Qarnayn (in Arabic ذو القرنين) is a… …   Wikipedia

  • Alexander the Great's personal relationships — Alexander the Great s lifelong companion was Hephaestion, the son of a Macedonian noble. Hephaistion was Alexander s closest friend, and held the position of second in command of Alexander s forces until his death, which devastated Alexander.… …   Wikipedia

  • Alexander the Great Airport — may refer to:*Kavala International Airport, also known as Kavala International Airport Megas Alexandros , in Kavala, Macedonia, Greece *Skopje Airport, also known as Skopje Alexander the Great Airport, in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia …   Wikipedia

  • Alexander the Great (song) — Infobox Song Name = Alexander the Great Artist = Iron Maiden Album = Somewhere in Time Released = 29 September 1986 track no = 8 Recorded = 1986 Genre = Heavy metal Length = 8:37 Writer = Steve Harris Composer = Steve Harris Label = EMI (UK)… …   Wikipedia

  • Alexander the Great (board game) — Infobox Game subject name=Alexander the Great image link= image caption = Alexander the Great box cover players=2 ages=12+ setup time=15 minutes playing time=2 hours complexity=Medium strategy=High random chance=low skills=Tactics, Strategy… …   Wikipedia

  • Alexander the Great (film) — Infobox Film name = Alexander The Great caption = Original film poster director = Robert Rossen producer = Executive producer: Gordon Griffith Producer: Robert Rossen writer = Robert Rossen narrator = starring = Richard Burton Claire Bloom… …   Wikipedia

  • Cultural depictions of Alexander the Great — Alexander the Great s accomplishments and legacy have been preserved and depicted in many ways. Alexander has figured in works of both high and popular culture from his own era to the modern day. Contents 1 Ancient and Medieval Literature 1.1 In… …   Wikipedia

  • Alexander the Paphlagonian — Alexander the Paphlagonian, a celebrated impostor and worker of false oracles, was born at Aboniteichos in Paphlagonia in the early part of the 2nd century.cite encyclopedia | last = Jowett | first = Benjamin | authorlink = Benjamin Jowett |… …   Wikipedia

  • The Great Terror — is a book by British writer Robert Conquest, published in 1968. It gave rise to an alternate title of the period in Soviet history known as the Great Purge. The complete title of the book is The Great Terror: Stalin s Purge of the Thirties . A… …   Wikipedia

  • Alexander the Good — ( Alexandru cel Bun ; Alexandru I Muşat ) was a Voivode (Prince) of Moldavia between 1400 and 1432,cite book|last=Vauchez|first=Andre|title=Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages|publisher=Routledge|date=2001 04… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.