From the fifth millennium B.C. onward, the use of bronze spread gradually over the Near East and was introduced to Mesopotamia around 3000 B.C. It was first produced as an alloy of copper and antimony or lead, later as an alloy of copper and tin. It was made either by smelting a mixture of copper ores and tin ores or by melting together metallic copper and tin. The alloy ratio varied from 6:1 to 10:1 depending on the function of the objects and the raw materials used. Normally the portion of arsenic is rather low in Mesopotamian bronze, but it can rise to 4 percent (arsenic bronze) depending on the copper ore.
   Bronze was used for cult objects, tools, weapons, and all kinds of everyday items. Several bronze objects such as swords or vessels were found in the Royal Tombs of Ur. After 1200 B.C., bronze was partially and gradually replaced by iron. The bronze bands from the templegates of Balawat (Imgur-Enlil) with their depictions of scenes from the military campaigns of Ashurnasirpal II and Shalmaneser IIIare of major historical importance, as are the bronze artifacts from Urartu and Luristan.
   See also METALS.

Historical Dictionary of Mesopotamia. . 2012.


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  • bronze-do — bronze do·ré; …   English syllables

  • bronze — [ brɔ̃z ] n. m. • 1511; it. bronzo; lat. médiév. °brundium, d o. i. 1 ♦ Alliage de cuivre et d étain. ⇒ airain. Bronzes spéciaux (avec addition de zinc, de plomb, etc.). Statue de bronze. Les anciens canons de bronze. Cloche de bronze. Médaille… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • bronzé — bronze [ brɔ̃z ] n. m. • 1511; it. bronzo; lat. médiév. °brundium, d o. i. 1 ♦ Alliage de cuivre et d étain. ⇒ airain. Bronzes spéciaux (avec addition de zinc, de plomb, etc.). Statue de bronze. Les anciens canons de bronze. Cloche de bronze.… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Bronze — Bronze, n. [F. bronze, fr. It. bronzo brown, fr. OHG. br?n, G. braun. See {Brown}, a.] 1. An alloy of copper and tin, to which small proportions of other metals, especially zinc, are sometimes added. It is hard and sonorous, and is used for… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • bronze — BRONZE. s. m. Alliage de cuivre, d étain et de zinc. Une statue de bronze. Le cheval de bronze. Des médailles de bronze. Graver sur le bronze. Fondeur en bronze.Bronze, se dit aussi d Une figure de bronze. Voilà un beau bronze. Il aime les… …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française 1798

  • Bronze — Bronze, Kupfer Zinn Legierung mit überwiegendem Kupfergehalt. Für besondere Zwecke, wie die untenstehenden Beispiele zeigen, erhalten die Bronzen mehr oder weniger große Zusätze von Zink, so daß man es in einigen Fällen tatsächlich mit… …   Lexikon der gesamten Technik

  • Bronze — (franz., spr. brongs , verdeutscht: brongße), Legierungen des Kupfers mit Zinn oder mit Zinn und Zink und etwas Blei. Bronzeartige Legierungen wurden vielleicht zuerst in dem erzreichen Gebiet zwischen Ural und Altai oder in Babylonien… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • bronze — BRONZE. s. m. Plusieurs le font f. Espece de metal composé de cuivre rouge & de cuivre jaune. Une statuë de bronze. le cheval de bronze. des medailles de bronze. un canon de bronze verte. Bronzes. Signifie aussi quelques figures de bronze, & en… …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

  • Bronze — Bronze, v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Bronzed}; p. pr. & vb. n. {Bronzing}.] [Cf. F. bronzer. See {Bronze}, n.] 1. To give an appearance of bronze to, by a coating of bronze powder, or by other means; to make of the color of bronze; as, to bronze plaster… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • bronzé — bronzé, ée (bron zé, zée) part. passé. Statuette bronzée. •   Un klephte a pour tous biens.... Un bon fusil bronzé par la fumée, et puis La liberté sur la montagne, V. HUGO Orient. 21.    Souliers bronzés, souliers dont la peau est teinte en brun …   Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré

  • bronze — [bränz] n. [Fr < It bronzo & ML bronzium; assoc. with L Brundisium,BRINDISI, but prob. ult. < Pers birinǧ, copper] 1. a) an alloy consisting chiefly of copper and tin b) any of certain other alloys with a copper base 2. an article, esp. a… …   English World dictionary

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